EDUCATION IN INDONESIAN

Source: U.S. Library of Congress

The character of Indonesia’s educational system reflects its diverse religious heritage, its struggle for a national identity, and the challenge of resource allocation in a poor but developing archipelagic nation with a young and rapidly growing population. Although a draft constitution stated in 1950 that a key government goal was to provide every Indonesian with at least six years of primary schooling, the aim of universal education had not been reached by the late 1980s, particularly among females–although great improvements had been made. Obstacles to meeting the government’s goal included a high birth rate, a decline in infant mortality, and a shortage of schools and qualified teachers. In 1973 Suharto issued an order to set aside portions of oil revenues for the construction of new primary schools. This act resulted in the construction or repair of nearly 40,000 primary school facilities by the late 1980s, a move that greatly facilitated the goal of universal education.

Primary and Secondary Education

Following kindergarten, Indonesians of between seven and twelve years of age were required to attend six years of primary school in the 1990s. They could choose between state-run, nonsectarian public schools supervised by the Department of Education and Culture or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs. However, although 85 percent of the Indonesian population was registered as Muslim, according to the 1990 census, less than 15 percent attended religious schools. Enrollment figures were slightly higher for girls than boys and much higher in Java than the rest of Indonesia.

A central goal of the national education system in the early 1990s was not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world, but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state, its bureaucracies, and its moral and ideological foundations. Since 1975, a key feature of the national curriculum–as in other parts of society–had been instruction in the Pancasila. Children age six and above learned its five principles–belief in one God, humanitarianism, national unity, democracy, and social justice–by rote and were instructed daily to apply the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. The alleged communist coup attempt in 1965 provided a vivid image of transgression against the Pancasila. Partly to prove their rejection of communist ideology, all teachers–like other members of Indonesian bureaucracy–swore allegiance not only to the Pancasila, but to the government party of functional groups.

Inside the public school classroom of the early 1990s, a style of pedagogy prevailed that emphasized rote learning and deference to the authority of the teacher. Although the youngest children were sometimes allowed to use the local language, by the third year of primary school nearly all instruction was conducted in formal Indonesian. Instead of asking questions of the students, a standard teaching technique was to narrate a historical event or to describe a mathematical problem, pausing at key junctures to allow the students to fill in the blanks. By not responding to individual problems of the students and retaining an emotionally distanced demeanor, the teacher is said to be sabar (patient), which is considered admirable behavior.

Nationally, the average class size in primary schools was approximately twenty-seven, while upper-level classes included between thirty and forty students. Ninety-two percent of primary school students graduated, but only about 60 percent of those continued on to junior high school (ages thirteen through fifteen). Of those who went on to junior high school, 87 percent also went on to a senior high school (ages sixteen through eighteen). The national adult literacy rate remained at about 77 percent in 1991 (84 percent for males and 68 percent for females), keeping Indonesia tied with Brunei for the lowest literacy among the six member nations of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

In the early 1990s, after completion of the six-year primary school program, students could choose among a variety of vocational and preprofessional junior and senior high schools, each level of which was three years in duration. There were academic and vocational junior high schools that could lead to senior-level diplomas. There were also “domestic science” junior high schools for girls. At the senior high-school level, there were three-year agricultural, veterinary, and forestry schools open to students who had graduated from an academic junior high school. Special schools at the junior and senior levels taught hotel management, legal clerking, plastic arts, and music.

Teacher training programs were varied, and were gradually upgraded. For example, in the 1950s anyone completing a teacher training program at the junior high level could obtain a teacher’s certificate. Since the 1970s, however, the teaching profession was restricted to graduates of a senior high school for teachers in a primary school and to graduates of a university-level education course for teachers of higher grades. Remuneration for primary and secondary school teachers compared favorably with countries such as Malaysia, India, and Thailand. Student-teacher ratios also compared favorably with most Asian nations at 25.3 to 1 and 15.3 to 1, respectively, for primary and secondary schools in the mid-1980s when the averages were 33.1 to 1 and 22.6 to 1 for Asian-Pacific countries.

Islamic Schools

The emphasis on the Pancasila in public schools has been resisted by some of the Muslim majority. A distinct but vocal minority of these Muslims prefer to receive their schooling in apesantren or residential learning center. Usually in rural areas and under the direction of a Muslim scholar, pesantren are attended by young people seeking a detailed understanding of the Quran, the Arabic language, the sharia, and Muslim traditions and history. Students could enter and leave the pesantren any time of the year, and the studies were not organized as a progression of courses leading to graduation. Although not all pesantren were equally orthodox, most were and the chief aim was to produce good Muslims.

In order for students to adapt to life in the modern, secular nation-state, the Muslim-dominated Department of Religious Affairs advocated the spread of a newer variety of Muslim school, themadrasa. In the early 1990s, these schools integrated religious subjects from the pesantren with secular subjects from the Western-style public education system. The less-than 15 percent of the school-age population who attended either type of Islamic schools did so because of the perceived higher quality instruction. However, among Islamic schools, a madrasa was ranked lower than a pesantren. Despite the widespread perception in the West of resurgent Islamic orthodoxy in Muslim countries, the 1980s saw little overall increase in the role of religion in school curricula in Indonesia.

In general, Indonesia’s educational system still faced a shortage of resources in the 1990s. The shortage of staffing in Indonesia’s schools was no longer as acute as in the 1950s, but serious difficulties remained, particularly in the areas of teacher salaries, teacher certification, and finding qualified personnel. Providing textbooks and other school equipment throughout the farflung archipelago continued to be a significant problem as well.

Higher Education

Indonesia’s institutions of higher education have experienced dramatic growth since independence. In 1950 there were ten institutions of higher learning, with a total of 6,500 students. In 1970 there were 450 private and state institutions enrolling 237,000 students, and by 1990 there were 900 institutions with 141,000 teachers and nearly 1,486,000 students. Public institutions enjoyed a considerably better student-teacher ratio (14 to 1) than private institutions (46 to 1) in the mid-1980s. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of state university budgets were financed by government subsidies, although the universities had considerably more autonomy in curriculum and internal structure than primary and secondary schools. Whereas tuition in such state institutions was affordable, faculty salaries were low by international standards. Still, university salaries were higher than primary and secondary school salaries. In addition, lecturers often had other jobs outside the university to supplement their wages.

Private universities were operated by foundations. Unlike state universities, private institutions had budgets that were almost entirely tuition driven. Each student negotiated a one-time registration fee–which could be quite high–at the time of entry. If a university had a religious affiliation, it could finance some of its costs through donations or grants from international religious organizations. The government provided only limited support for private universities.

Higher education in the early 1990s offered a wide range of programs, many of which were in a state of flux. Nearly half of all students enrolled in higher education in 1985 were social sciences majors. Humanities and science and technology represented nearly 28 percent and 21 percent, respectively. The major degrees granted were the sarjana muda (junior scholar; roughly corresponding to a bachelor’s degree) and the sarjana (scholar or master’s degree). Very fewdoktor (doctoral) degrees were awarded. Few students studying for the sarjana muda actually finished in one to three years. One study found that only 10 to 15 percent of students finished their course of study on time, partly because of the requirement to complete the traditional skripsi(thesis). In 1988, for instance, 235,000 new students were admitted for sarjana muda-level training and 1,234,800 were enrolled at various stages of the program, but only 95,600 graduated.

Discussion about how to improve Indonesian higher education focused on issues of teacher salaries, laboratory and research facilities, and professor qualifications. According to official figures, in 1984 only 13.9 percent of permanent faculty members at state institutions of higher learning had any advanced degree; only 4.5 percent had a doctorate. Since doctoral programs were rare in Indonesia and there was little money to support education overseas, this situation improved only slowly. Despite these difficulties, most institutions of higher education received large numbers of applications in the late 1980s and early 1990s; in state institutions less than one application in four was accepted. One of the most serious problems for graduates with advanced degrees, however, was finding employment suited to their newly acquired education.

The University of Indonesia, founded in Jakarta in the 1930s, is the nation’s oldest university. Other major universities include Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia’s oldest postindependence university, founded in 1946) in Yogyakarta; Catholic University and Institut Teknologi Bandung, both in Bandung; and the Institut Pertanian Bogor in Bogor. In the early 1990s, there also were important regional universities in Sulawesi, Sumatera Utara, Jawa Barat, and Irian Jaya.

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Mawar Yang Kuncup Kini Merekah

Dear Serena biskuit….

Saat adzan ashar berkumandang, tepat pada tanggal 01 februari 1992 aku terlahir kedunia ini sebagai anak kedua dan putri perempuan pertama dalam keluarga. Hari demi hari ibu dan ayahku terus membesarkan dan mendidik aku dan kaka ku, kami hidup dalam keluarga yang sangat serba kekurangan. Heningnya malam, menjadi saksi atas keharmonisan yang tersirat dlam keluarga kecil kami, dan tak pernah terpikirkan olehku bahwa aku hidup dalam keluarga yang seperti ini. Semua terasa indah dimataku saat itu. Tahun keempat aku hidup di dunia ini, akhirnya anggota keluarga kami bertambah menjadi 3 bersaudara, ia adalah adik wanita yang sangat elok nan cantik.

Waktu itu tak pernah terpikirkan olehku, bahwa hidupku saat itu sangatlah kritis. Ayah adalah seorang guru biasa dan ibu pedagang sederhana. Setiap pagi kami harus menunggu pembeli jika ingin mendapatkan uang jajan untuk sekolah. Ibuku penjual cemilan dan makanan seperti bubur dan uduk. Kami tak pernah tahu uang dari ayah, yang kami tahu adalah uang jajan dari ibu. Setiap pergi sekolah kami berdua berangkat bersama ayah naik motor, dan pulang jalan kaki. Hari demi hari barulah terasa bahwa aku dibesarkan dalam keluarga sedrhana, karna faktor lingkunagan yang cukup mewah ku rasakan saat itu. Kadang aku dan kakaku membantu ibu berjualan di tempat adu ayam atau lomba-lomba antar kampung. Aku dan kaka menjual minuman dan makanan kecil yang bisa kami gendong di pundak kami. Ibu selalu berdoa, tawakal, sabar dan tabah dengan keadaan kami saat itu, dan ayah terus berjuang untuk menjadikan hidup kami menjadi lebih indah. Hari demi hari kami lewati bersama sampai saatnya ketika bertepatan adik ku memulai sekolahnya di sekolah dasar, ayah ku di angkat menjadi kepala sekolah di suatu sekolah dasar. Tapi kegiatan sehari-hari tak pernah berubah, ibu tetap berjualan dan ayah sibuk dengan targetnya. Bulan berganti tahun akhirnya ibupun memutuskan untuk kuliah dan mengajar sambil berjualan.

Suatu ketika tanpa kita sadari, ayah tengah sibuk menyiapkan pembangunan rumah yang tak jauh dengan perumahan yang kita tempati saat itu. Itu adalah anugrah buat kami, kami yang biasanya tidur dalam 1 kamar berlima dengan dapur yang menyatu dengan warung, dan kamar mandi yang kecil kini akan tinggal dirumah yang cukup besar yang dulu sebelum jadi aku bayangkan adalah rumah yang sangat megah dan indah. Aku tak ingat berapa lama pembangunan itu dilakukan, yang ku ingat ketika kami pertama kali menempati rumah itu aku dan saudara-saudaraku memilik adik lagi yang berjenis kelamin laki-laki, ia adalah putra keempat orangtua kami.

Ternyata benar yang aku bayangkan, ayah membangunkan istana indah nan megah buat kami. Saat itu aku menyadari, bahwa ayah selama ini mendidik kami secara sederhana karena agar semua cita-cita dan targetnya tercapai lebih cepat dan agar kami tak hidup dalam gemerlap kemewahan. Dan ayah melakukan ini semata-mata untuk kebahagiaan keluarga di masa depan. Kini sangatlah terasa dalam hidupku bahwa Hidup membutuhkan perjuangan untuk meraih cita-cita yang diharapkan. 14 tahun perjalanan ayah dan ibu di arungi oleh badai yang sangat kencang. Butuh tiang yang kokoh untuk menyelamatkan diri dari badai yang menerjang.

Diumurku yang ke 14 tahun pula aku memiliki adik ke empat, atau putra kelima dari ayah dan ibu, dan aku bersyukur karena ia hidup dalam keadaan ekonomi yang jauh lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Kini kami hidup dalam keadaan ekonomi yang baik dan kami tetap menerapkan hidup sederhana dalam keseharian kami. Kini kakaku seorang mahasiswa yang sedang menyusun skripsinya di salah satu Univeritas kota bandung, adik peremuanku kini tengah sibuk dengan kelulusan di SMAnya, dan kedua adik laki-laki ku yang kini menduduki bangku kelas 2 SMP dan 1 SD, dan aku sendiri kini tengah mengenyam pendidikan di salah satu Universitas kota serang. Ibu dan ayahku kini menjadi pegawai negri sipil di daerahku, dengan jabatan yang berbeda.

Terimakasih Serena biskuit telah memberikan kesempatan kepada kami untuk menceritakan kisah hidup kami.

Dan terimakasih juga buat para bloger yang bersedia membaca tulisan saya.

See U next time..

Bye… 🙂

Me and my lovely shoes.

Hallo bloger….

Disini aku mau ceritain pengalamanku bersama sepatu-sepatu kesayanganku. Semoga kalian suka ya dengan tulisanku ini… amiiiin…. 🙂 

Semenjak aku menginjak SMP, di sekolah ku dulu setiap siswa wajib memakai sepatu pantofel berwarna hitam, tau kan ladies sepatu pantofel? Hehehe 🙂 pasti tau lah…  nah sepatu pantofel yang kita pakai harus flate (emangnya bu guru pake high heels pantofel!!! Xixixixi). Boleh juga siiih pake yg scate,  tapi Cuma bisa dipakai saat pramuka and olah raga aja. Naah… karena aku sekolah SMA di yayasan yang sama, maka  peraturanya juga  ga beda, masih harus pake pantofel juga. Enam tahun aku menghabiskan waktu ku dengan sepatu pantofel, jadi saat kuliah aku lebih senang dan nyaman menggunakan sepatu model ini. Walaupun ga kaya dulu lagi, sekarang aku bisa bebas memilih warna dan tipe sepatu, kalo orang bilang Fhasionable shoes. 🙂 cieee…..

Berbagai macam sepatu aku pernah pake, dari mulai yang flate, wadges, and high heels. Tapiiiii, aku adalah wanita yang tipenya “ga akan ganti sepatu sebelum sepatunya rusak” hehehe makanya aku lebih suka pakai sepatu yang harganya middle to up lah, soalnya kalo sepatu berkualitas biasanya awet and ga bikin malu kalo di pakai berkali-kali contohnya kaya BE.BOB shoes. Hehehe :), eh tapi jangan salah loh, walaupun aku tipe cewek yang “ga ganti sepatu sebelum sepatunya rusak” aku juga punya semua tipe and model sepatu and sandal loh… karena sepatunya lama rusaknya jadi aku juga pengen beli sepatu dengan model and tipe yang berbeda. Hehehe kalo gitu sama aja ya,, xixixixxi. 😛

Ok, now I want to share my experience with my shoes, expecially my wadges shoes and high heels shoes. Saat aku pakai wadges and high heels aku sering sekali mengalami kecelakaan kecil, seperti keseleolah, pegel lah, keram lah and etc deh pokoknya. Tapi anehnya walau pun aku tahu resiko pakai sepatu dengan model-model tadi, aku ga pernah kapok buat pake. Hehehe agak bandel emang :D. Kadang juga suka dimarahin doi kalo lagi dapet kecelakaan itu, tapi aku don’t care, coz aku punya cara menanganinya. Mau ga tau ladies….???  pastinya mau dong… hehehe

Ini dia cara aku menghidari dan mengobati resiko-resiko pakai wadges and high heels shoes.

Kalo buat menghidarinya, aku biasanya pilih-pilih jalan dan hati-hati saat berjalan. Selain itu aku juga suka lepas sepatu saat istirahat tiba, yang penting dalam 4 jam memakai wadges and high heels aku istirahatkan kaki ku dengan cara melepaskannya atau mencopotnya, dan mengendorkan urat-urat yang menegang dengan pijatan ringan dan merilexkan otot. Naaah itu cara menghindarinya.

and untuk mengobatinya biasanya aku semprot kakiku pakai foot spray. Kadang aku juga ke tukang pijat kalo memang parah. Itu aja sih yang biasa aku lakukan. Yang terpenting aku bisa terus berkreasi dengan sepatu-sepatuku and selalu ingin terlihat Fhasionable in my daily with my shoes, like  BE.BOB that Fhasionable daily shoes.

Itu aja sih pengalaman dan ceritaku dengan sepatu-sepatuku. Semoga bermanfaat ya.. 🙂 and semoga kalian suka dengan tulisanku. 😀

Thanks ya BE.BOB and reader…. 🙂  

Bye….

See U next time…

 

 

 NB: more about BE.BOB :

facebook : https://www.facebook.com/pages/Be-Bob-Shoes/476634179035449?fref=ts

twitter : https://twitter.com/DELICISHOES

 

Luv your life with Luve Litee

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Semua orang pasti tahu cara hidup sehat, tapi kebanyakan dari kita malas untuk mengaplikasikan ke dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Mungkin karena banyak pekerjaan lah, tidak sempat lah, tidak punya uangalah, malaslah daaaaaaaan alasan lain sebagainya. 🙂 

Sebetulnya tak usah khawatir dengan semua itu karena di zaman modern saat ini semua itu bisa di dapat dengan cara instan dan praktis. Eeeitss tapi harus pilih-pilih juga ya kawan! Jangan asal hablem aja.  🙂

Ok deh sekarang kita fokus pada pola makan aja. Coz aku yakin kita semua tau apa aja yang bisa bikin hidup kita  sehat, iya kaann???

Eeemmhh,, tapi boleh deh aku kasih poin-poinnya aja.OK???

Nihh dia… yang ke:

  1. Jaga pola makan
  2. Tidur yang cukup
  3. Cukupi kebutuhan minum air putih
  4. Olahraga teratur
  5. Berfikir positif, dan
  6. Jaga kebersihan

Well,, kita lanjut yaaa….

POLA MAKAN.

Sebetulnya apa aja sih yang baik kita konsumsi?, asupan apa aja si yang penting untuk tubuh? Jenis makanan apa aja si yang baik untuk tubuh? Bagaimana si cara makan yang sehat? Dan masih banyak lagi pertanyaan lainnya …. 🙂

Ok, yuk kita coba bahas bareng2,,,,

Manusia memerlukan makanan untuk tumbuh, bereproduksi, dan memelihara kesehatan yang baik. Tanpa makanan, tubuh kita tidak dapat menjaga suhunya, membangun atau memperbaiki jaringan, atau memelihara detak jantung. Memakan makanan yang benar dapat menghindarkan kita dari berbagai penyakit atau sembuh lebih cepat ketika penyakit menyerang. Faktor-faktor tersebut dan fungsi-fungsi penting lain dipenuhi dengan zat-zat kimia di dalam makanan kita yang disebut nutrisi. Nutrisi dikategorikan sebagai karbohidrat, protein, lemak, vitamin-vitamin dan mineral.

Sebetulnya nutrisi tidak hanya dapat pada nasi, gandum, kentang dan roti untuk karbohidrat. ikan, daging dan telor untuk protein. Tapi masih banyak lagi makanan yang lain. Pada zaman modern ini para ilmuan dan ahli medis telah menemukan jenis makanan dan minuman  yang sehat yang dapat kita konsumsi dengan baik. Seperti Green Tea, Chocolate, dan Raspberry Rosella. Dalam yang tadi di sebutkan, itu memiliki kandungan yang dasyat dan terdapat banyak kandungan dan manfaat didalamnya. Well, sekarang kita bahas kandungan dan manfaatnya dari ketiga di atas yuk….

 

1. Green tea (teh hijau)

Sejak 500 tahun yang lalu manusia telah menikmati seduhan daun teh dalam air mendidih. Teh (camelia sinensis) adalah minuman paling banyak dikonsumsi di dunia setelah air tawar.  Penelitian medis modern menunjukkan banyak manfaat teh hijau bagi kesehatan. Sebagian besar manfaat teh hijau berkaitan dengan polifenol, fitokimia bersifat antioksidan kuat yang memberikan rasa pahit pada teh hijau. Ada 4 polifenol utama yang ditemukan dalam daun teh yaitu epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate yang (ECG) dan epicatechin (EC). Baru-baru ini, peneliti telah berfokus pada asam amino teh yang disebut theanine. Theanine (juga disebut L-theanine) adalah asam amino utama dalam daun teh hijau, yang memberikan rasa teh yang khas. Berikut adalah manfaat kesehatan teh hijau:

1.      mengurangi risiko penyakit jantung dan kanker kolorektal.

2.      membantu melawan kanker esofagus dan kanker kandung kemih

3.      mengurangi kolesterol dan tekanan darah

4.      mengurangi depresi dan stres

5.      meningkatkan konsentrasi belajar

6.      meningkatkan kualitas hidup penderita kanker

7.      memperkuat sistem kekebalan tubuh       

8.      membantu menurunkan berat badan

9.      menguatkan tulang

10.  mengurangi resiko kanker usus pada wanita

wahhh,,, banyak juga ya ternyata manfaat dari green tea, tapi sekarang kita ga usah ribet buat seduh-seduh teh, karna green tea telah di sajikan dengan sajian yang nikmat yaitu ice cream, jadi semua orang dan semua kalangan lebih termotifasi untuk menikmati kasiat dari green tea dengan disajikan dalam bentuk ice cream. iya kaaan… 🙂 and cuma Luve Litee  yang bisa se-care ini. 

2. Raspberry Rosella

Khasiat dan Manfaat Bunga Rosella memang sudah tidak asing lagi, banyak sekali minuman yang terbuat dari bunga rosella yang sering kita minum, Minuman dari bunga rosella memang sedang popular belakangan ini. Khasiat Bunga Rosella tentu saja baik untuk kesehatan. Bunga rosella yang dikeringkan, diseduh dengan air panas dan rasanya agak sedikit kecut namun khasiatnya sangat luar biasa.

Manfaat Raspberry Rosella:

  1. Menurunkan Hipetensi
  2. Bersifat detoksifikasi (menetralkan racun)
  3. Menghambat tumbuhnya kanker
  4. Menurunkan kolestrol dalm darah
  5. Menurunkan kadar gula dalam darah pada penderita diabetus melitus
  6. Mencegah timbulnya batuk kronis
  7. Mencegah osteoporisis
  8. Menjaga stamina
  9. Mencegah stroke
  10. Mencegah panas dalam
  11. Melancarkan buang air besar
  12. Menurunkan penggumpalan lemak dihati
  13. Mengurangi migran/sakit kepala
  14. Mengandung Vitamin C dosis tinggi
  15. Melangsingkan tubuh
  16. Membantu pemulihan ketergantungan obat
  17. Menjaga kesehata hati
  18. Menghaluskan kulit, dll. J

Ternyata OK juga ya, kasiat dari Raspberry Rosella ini. Oiya Luve litte http://eskrimlowfat.com juga punya loh Ice cream rasa rosela. Jadi lebih mudah kan buat nikmatin kasiat rosela dalam bentuk ice cream. 🙂 muantaf buanget kan Luve litte  ??? 

3. Chocolate

Coklat yang bisa diolah menjadi berbagai jenis makanan mempunyai berbagai manfaat untuk kesehatan. Anggapan yang salah adalah hanya penuh dengan kalori yang hanya akan menambah berat badan.

Berikut adalah 8 manfaat coklat untuk kesehatan:

1. Mencegah penyakit jantung

2. Menurunkan tekanan darah

3. menurunkan kolestrol

4. Anti depresan

5. Kandungan lemak rendah

6. Meningkatkan sirkulasi darah

7. Menghindari kelelahan kronis

8. Menghambat penuaan

Waaahh…. Coklat juga ga kalah loh,,, coklat juga punya kasiat yang bagus, walau sebagian orang kadang memndang sebelah mata tentang coklat. Padahal coklat baik banget loh buat tubuh. Kalo kalian mau kasiat coklat yang sesumgguhnya cobain aja deh Ice cream Luve litee rasa coklat. Coz ga ada 1 kandunganpun yang terbuang, pokoee luve litte muantaf.. 🙂

Luve Litee adalah Es Krim Lowfat, 100% Non Dairy, deengan varian rasa Green Tea, Chocolate, Raspberry Rosella. Makannya,,, buruan cauu buat beli luve litte.. ga di ragukan lagi kan dari Ice cream yang satu ini??? 🙂

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Mau info lebih lanjut tentang luve litte?

Klik aja:  https://www.facebook.com/LuVeLiteeCampina 

               https://twitter.com/LuVe_Litee

               http://eskrimlowfat.com/ 

APA PERBEDAANNYA : MODEL, METODE, STRATEGI, PENDEKATAN DAN TEKNIK PEMBELAJARAN

APA PERBEDAANNYA : MODEL, METODE, STRATEGI, PENDEKATAN DAN TEKNIK PEMBELAJARANImage

17 Maret 2012 oleh Herdian,S.Pd., M.Pd.

 

Pendekatan pembelajarandapat diartikan sebagai titik tolak atau sudut pandang kita terhadap proses pembelajaran, yang merujuk pada pandangan tentang terjadinya suatu proses yang sifatnya masih sangat umum, di dalamnya mewadahi, menginsiprasi, menguatkan, dan melatari metode pembelajaran dengan cakupan teoretis tertentu. Dilihat dari pendekatannya, pembelajaran terdapat dua jenis pendekatan, yaitu: (1) pendekatan pembelajaran yang berorientasi atau berpusat pada siswa (student centered approach) dan (2) pendekatan pembelajaran yang berorientasi atau berpusat pada guru (teacher centered approach).

Sementara itu, Kemp (Wina Senjaya, 2008) mengemukakan bahwa strategi pembelajaranadalah suatu kegiatan pembelajaran yang harus dikerjakan guru dan siswa agar tujuan pembelajaran dapat dicapai secara efektif dan efisien. Selanjutnya, dengan mengutip pemikiran J. R David, Wina Senjaya (2008) menyebutkan bahwa dalam strategi pembelajaran terkandung makna perencanaan. Artinya, bahwa strategi pada dasarnya masih bersifat konseptual tentang keputusan-keputusan yang akan diambil dalam suatu pelaksanaan pembelajaran. Dilihat dari strateginya, pembelajaran dapat dikelompokkan ke dalam dua bagian pula, yaitu: (1) exposition-discovery learning dan (2) group-individual learning (Rowntree dalam Wina Senjaya, 2008). Ditinjau dari cara penyajian dan cara pengolahannya, strategi pembelajaran dapat dibedakan antara strategi pembelajaran induktif dan strategi pembelajaran deduktif.

Jadi, metode pembelajarandapat diartikan sebagai cara yang digunakan untuk mengimplementasikan rencana yang sudah disusun dalam bentuk kegiatan nyata dan praktis untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran. Terdapat beberapa metode pembelajaran yang dapat digunakan untuk mengimplementasikan strategi pembelajaran, diantaranya: (1) ceramah; (2) demonstrasi; (3) diskusi; (4) simulasi; (5) laboratorium; (6) pengalaman lapangan; (7) brainstorming; (8) debat, (9) simposium, dan sebagainya.

Selanjutnya metode pembelajaran dijabarkan ke dalam teknik dan gaya pembelajaran. Dengan demikian, teknik pembelajaran dapat diatikan sebagai cara yang dilakukan seseorang dalam mengimplementasikan suatu metode secara spesifik. Misalkan, penggunaan metode ceramah pada kelas dengan jumlah siswa yang relatif banyak membutuhkan teknik tersendiri, yang tentunya secara teknis akan berbeda dengan penggunaan metode ceramah pada kelas yang jumlah siswanya terbatas. Sementara taktik pembelajaran merupakan gaya seseorang dalam melaksanakan metode atau teknik pembelajaran tertentu yang sifatnya individual. Misalkan, terdapat dua orang sama-sama menggunakan metode ceramah, tetapi mungkin akan sangat berbeda dalam taktik yang digunakannya. Dalam penyajiannya, yang satu cenderung banyak diselingi dengan humor karena memang dia memiliki sense of humor yang tinggi, sementara yang satunya lagi kurang memiliki sense of humor, tetapi lebih banyak menggunakan alat bantu elektronik karena dia memang sangat menguasai bidang itu

 model pembelajaran. pada dasarnya merupakan bentuk pembelajaran yang tergambar dari awal sampai akhir yang disajikan secara khas oleh guru. Dengan kata lain, model pembelajaran merupakan bungkus atau bingkai dari penerapan suatu pendekatan, metode, dan teknik pembelajaran. Kendati demikian, seringkali penggunaan istilah model pembelajaran tersebut diidentikkan dengan strategi pembelajaran.

H. Agus Maimun. Dosen UIN Malang menulis  Teori pembelajaran adalah fakta, konsep, prinsip, dan prosedur pembelajaran yang telah diuji kebenarannya melalui pendekatan ilmiah (behavioristik, kognitivistik, konstruktivistik, perilaku sosial/social behavior).

Disain pembelajaran adalah upaya untuk merencanakan dan menyusun, melaksanakan proses pembelajaran, dan menilai hasil pembelajaran secara sistematis.

Pendekatan pembelajaran adalah muatan-muatan etis-paedagogis yang menyertai  kegiatan proses pembelajaran yang berisi religius/spiritual, Rasional/intelektual, Emosional, Fungsional, Keteladanan, Pembiasaan, dan Pengalaman.

Strategi pembelajaran adalah cara-cara tertentu yang digunakan secara sistematis & prosedural dalam kegiatan pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan kualitas proses dan hasil belajar. Contoh  : contextual teaching-learning, Quantum teaching-learning, Active learning, Mastery learning, Discovery-inquiry learning, cooperative Learning dan PAIKEM.

Metode pembelajaran adalah cara-cara yang berbeda untuk mencapai hasil belajar yang berbeda dalam kondisi yang berbeda berdasarkan kompetensi pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan ( Ceramah, tanya jawab, diskusi, dll ).

Model pembelajaran kerangka konseptual yang melukiskan prosedur secara sistematis dalam mengorganisasikan pengalaman belajar untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran (dick & carey, weils, benety, dll)

Kesimpulan.

Dari hasil pemaparan diatas, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada perbedaan antara model pembelajaran, pendekatan pembelajaran, strategi pembelajaran, tehnik dan metode pembelajaran. Walaupun perbedaan itu tidak begitu tegas, karena semua istilah merupakan satu kesatuan yang saling menunjang, untuk melaksanakan proses pembelajaran. Jadi model pembelajaran  adalah  pembungkus proses pembelajaran yang didalamnya ada pendekatan, strategi, metode dan tehnik. Contoh  : model yang digunakan guru PAIKEM, Pendekatan pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan pemerintah adalah pendekatan pembelajaran yang terfokus pada siswa, dimana strategi  pembelajaran siswa aktif, bisa mengungkapan gagasan, penemuan-penemuan

Jika strategi pembelajaran lebih berkenaan dengan pola umum dan prosedur umum aktivitas pembelajaran, sedangkan desain pembelajaran lebih menunjuk kepada cara-cara merencanakan suatu sistem lingkungan belajar tertentu setelah ditetapkan strategi pembelajaran tertentu. Jika dianalogikan dengan pembuatan rumah, strategi membicarakan tentang berbagai kemungkinan tipe atau jenis rumah yang hendak dibangun (rumah joglo, rumah gadang, rumah modern, dan sebagainya), masing-masing akan menampilkan kesan dan pesan yang berbeda dan unik. Sedangkan desain adalah menetapkan cetak biru (blue print) rumah yang akan dibangun beserta bahan-bahan yang diperlukan dan urutan-urutan langkah konstruksinya, maupun kriteria penyelesaiannya, mulai dari tahap awal sampai dengan tahap akhir, setelah ditetapkan tipe rumah yang akan dibangun.

Berdasarkan uraian di atas, bahwa untuk dapat melaksanakan tugasnya secara profesional, seorang guru dituntut dapat memahami dan memliki keterampilan yang memadai dalam mengembangkan berbagai model pembelajaran yang efektif, kreatif dan menyenangkan, sebagaimana diisyaratkan dalam Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan.

Mencermati upaya reformasi pembelajaran yang sedang dikembangkan di Indonesia, para guru atau calon guru saat ini banyak ditawari dengan aneka pilihan model pembelajaran, yang kadang-kadang untuk kepentingan penelitian (penelitian akademik maupun penelitian tindakan) sangat sulit menermukan sumber-sumber literarturnya. Namun, jika para guru (calon guru) telah dapat memahami konsep atau teori dasar pembelajaran yang merujuk pada proses (beserta konsep dan teori) pembelajaran sebagaimana dikemukakan di atas, maka pada dasarnya guru pun dapat secara kreatif mencobakan dan mengembangkan model pembelajaran tersendiri yang khas, sesuai dengan kondisi nyata di tempat kerja masing-masing, sehingga pada gilirannya akan muncul model-model pembelajaran versi guru yang bersangkutan, yang tentunya semakin memperkaya khazanah model pembelajaran yang telah ada.

Sumber:

Dedi Supriawan dan A. Benyamin Surasega, 1990. Strategi Belajar Mengajar (Diktat Kuliah). Bandung: FPTK-IKIP Bandung.

S. Nasution.Prof. Dr. M.A, 2003, Berbagai Pendekatan dalam Proses Belajar dan Mengajar, Jakarta, Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.

Syaiful Sagala,H. DR. M.Pd, 2003, Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran, Penerbit ALFABETA, Bandung.

Suyatno, www. Klub guru. Com.

Udin S. Winataputra. 2003. Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Pusat Penerbitan Universitas Terbuka.

Wina Senjaya. 2008. Strategi Pembelajaran; Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Zainal Aqib Elham Rohmanto,2006, Membangun Profesionalisme Guru dan Pengawas Sekolah,Bandung, Yrama Widya, Bandung.

………………………, 2008, Beda Strategi, Model, Pendekatan, Metode, dan Teknik Pembelajaran 

french fries or kentang goreng

Image 

Hai  guys,,, ^_^

Pasti kalian pengen tw kan, gimana caranya membuat kentang goreng di rumah menjadi crunchy, gurih dan enak???

setelah melakukan berkali-kali percobaan, di sisni aku mw share, gimana caranya membuat kentang goreng buatan kita jadi renyah dan enak kaya yang ada di MCd or KFC….

Ok,, I’ll begin…. 😉

Bahan :

1. 1 Kg kentang (pilih kentang yang bagus dan besar)

2. 2 siung bawang putih

3. Bumbu penyedap

4. Garam dapur (secukupnya)

5. Tepung meizena (secukupnya)

6. Air Es

7. Minyak goreng

Cara: 

1. Kupas kentang lalu potong memanjang, cuci kentang sampai bersih, sampai air cucian nya menjadi bening. coz yang bikin goreng kentang menjadi lembek adalah getahnya, kemudian rendam potongan kentang dengan air es selama 2 jam.

2. Tiriskan potongan kentang, lalu siapkan air dalam panci dan tunggu air tersebut mendidih. sambil menunggu air mendidih, kita iris bawang putih. setelah air mendidih, masukan potongan kentang dan irisan bawang putih kedalam air rebusan. rebus kurang lebih 2-3 menit. lalu tiriskan.

3. Setelah ditiriskan aduk potongan kentang selama masih panas dengan bumbu penyedap dan garam secukupnya, lalu taburi tepung meizena dan ratakan. kemudian simpan di lemari es, jangan di simpan dalam flizer, kecuali kamu mw menyimpanya dalam waktu yang lama.

4. Jika ingin di santap, ambil potongan kentang tersebut dalam lemari es, lalu goreng dengan minyak sayur yang panas, cara mengetahui minyak tersebut panas, coba masukan satu potong kentang ke dalamnya, jika kentang langsung mengambang di atas minyak berarti minyak sudah panas. Dan pastikan potongan kentang terendam minyak. jika kentang sudah terlihat kuning kecoklatan angkat dan tiriskan. lalu sajikan. sediakan sauce jika perlu.

Selamat Mencoba………. ^_^

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY TO EDUCATION

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY TO EDUCATION

Edward L. Thorndike (1910)

Teachers College, Columbia University

First published in The Journal of Educational Psychology1, 5-12.

 


 

Psychology is the science of the intellects, characters and behavior of animals including man. Human education is concerned with certain changes in the intellects, characters and behavior of men, its problems being roughly included under these four topics: Aims, materials, means and methods.

Psychology contributes to a better understanding of the aims of education by defining them, making them clearer; by limiting them, showing us what can be done and what can not; and by suggesting new features that should be made parts of them.

Psychology makes ideas of educational aims clearer. When one says that the aim of education is culture, or discipline, or efficiency, or happiness, or utility, or knowledge, or skill, or the perfection of all one’s powers, or development, one’s statements and probably one’s thoughts, need definition. Different people, even amongst the clearest-headed of them, do not agree concerning just what culture is, or just what is useful. Psychology helps here by requiring us to put our notions of the aims of education into terms of the exact changes that education is to make, and by describing for us the changes which do actually occur in human beings.

Psychology helps to measure the probability that an aim is attainable. For example, certain writers about education state or imply that the knowledge and skill and habits of behavior which are taught to the children of today are of service not only to this generation and to later generations through the work this generation does, but also to later generations forever through the inheritance of increased capacity for knowledge and skill and morals. But if the mental and moral changes made in one generation are not transmitted by heredity to the next generation, the improvement of the race by direct transfer of acquisitions is a foolish, because futile aim.

[p. 6] Psychology enlarges and refines the aim of education. Certain features of human nature may be and have been thought to be unimportant or even quite valueless because of ignorance of psychology. Thus for hundreds of years in the history of certain races even the most gifted thinkers of the race have considered it beneath the dignity of education to make physical health an important aim. Bodily welfare was even thought of as a barrier to spiritual growth, an undesirable interferer with its proper master. Education aimed to teach it its proper place, to treat it as a stupid and brutish slave. It is partly because psychology has shown the world that the mind is the servant and co-worker as well as the master of the body, that the welfare of our minds and morals is intimately bound up with the welfare of our bodies, particularly of our central nervous systems, that today we can all see the eminence of bodily health as an aim of education.

To an understanding of the material of education, psychology is the chief contributor.

Psychology shares with anatomy, physiology, sociology, anthropology, history and the other sciences that concern changes in man’s bodily or mental nature the work of providing thinkers and workers in the field of education with knowledge of the material with which they work. Just as the science and art of agriculture depend upon chemistry and botany, so the art of education depends upon physiology and psychology.

A complete science of psychology would tell every fact about every one’s intellect and character and behavior, would tell the cause of every change in human nature, would tell the result which every educational force –every act of every person that changed any other or the agent himself –would have. It would aid us to use human beings for the world’s welfare with the same surety of the result that we now have when we use falling bodies or chemical elements. In proportion as we get such a science we shall become masters of our own souls as we now are masters of heat and light. Progress toward such a science is being made.

Psychology contributes to understanding of the means of education, first, because the intellects and characters of any one’s parents, teachers and friends are very important means of educating him, and, second, [p. 7]because the influence of any other means, such as books, maps or apparatus, cannot be usefully studied apart from the human nature which they are to act upon.

Psychology contributes to knowledge of methods of teaching in three ways. First, methods may be deduced outright from the laws of human nature. For instance, we may infer from psychology that the difficulty pupils have in learning to divide by a fraction is due in large measure to the habit established by all the thousands of previous divisions which they have done or seen, the habit, that is, of “division — decrease” or “number divided — result smaller than the number.” We may then devise or select such a method as will reduce this interference from the old habits to a minimum without weakening the old habits in their proper functioning.

Second, methods may be chosen from actual working experience, regardless of psychology, as a starting point. Thus it is believed that in the elementary school a class of fifteen pupils for one teacher gives better results than either a class of three or a class of thirty. Thus, also, it is believed that family life is better than institutional life in its effects upon character and enterprise. Thus, also, it is believed that in learning a foreign language the reading of simple discussions of simple topics is better than the translation of difficult literary masterpieces that treat subtle and complex topics. Even in such cases psychology may help by explaining why one method does succeed better and so leading the way to new insights regarding other questions not yet settled by experience.

Third, in all cases psychology, by its methods of measuring knowledge and skill, may suggest means to test and verify or refute the claims of any method. For instance, there has been a failure on the part of teachers to decide from their classroom experience whether it is better to teach the spelling of a pair of homonyms together or apart in time. But all that is required to decide the question for any given pair is for enough teachers to use both methods with enough different classes, keeping everything else except the method constant, and to measure the errors in spelling the words thereafter in the two cases. Psychology, which teaches us how to measure changes in human nature, teaches us how to decide just what the results of any method of teaching are.

[p. 8] So far I have outlined the contribution of psychology to education from the point of view of the latter’s problems. I shall now outline very briefly the work being done by psychologists which is of special significance to the theory and practice of education and which may be expected to result in the largest and most frequent contributions.

It will, of course, be understood that directly or indirectly, soon or late, every advance in the sciences of human nature will contribute to our success in controlling human nature and changing it to the advantage of the common weal. If certain lines of work by psychologists are selected for mention here, it is only because they are the more obvious, more direct and, so far as can now be seen, greater aids to correct thinking about education.

The first line of work concerns the discovery and improvement of means of measurement of intellectual functions. (The study of means of measuring moral functions such as prudence, readiness to sacrifice an immediate for a later good, sympathy, and the like, has only barely begun.) Beginning with easy cases such as the discrimination of sensory differences, psychology has progressed to measuring memory and accuracy of movement, fatigue, improvement with practice, power of observing small details, the quantity, rapidity and usefulness of associations, and even to measuring so complex a function as general intelligence and so subtle a one as suggestibility.

The task of students of physical science in discovering the thermometer, galvanometer and spectroscope, and in defining the volt, calorie erg, and ampère, is being attempted by psychologists in the sphere of human nature and behavior. How important such work is to education should be obvious. At least three-fourths of the problems of educational practice are problems whose solution depends upon the amount of some change in boys and girls. Of two methods, which gives the greater skill? Is the gain in general ability from a “disciplinary” study so great as to outweigh the loss in specially useful habits? Just how much more does a boy learn when thirty dollars a year is spent for his teaching than when only twenty dollars is spent? Units in which to measure the changes wrought by education are essential to an adequate science of education. And, though the students of education may establish these units by their own investigations, they can use and will need all the experience of psychologists in the search for similar units.

[p. 9] The second line of work concerns race, sex, age and individual differences in all the many elements of intellect and character and behavior.

How do the Igorottes, Ainus, Japanese and Esquimaux differ in their efficiency in learning to operate certain mechanical contrivances? Is the male sex more variable than the female in mental functions? What happens to keenness of sensory discrimination with age? How do individuals of the same race, sex and age differ in efficiency in perceiving small visual details or in accuracy in equaling a given length, or in the rapidity of movement? These are samples of many questions which psychologists have tried to answer by appropriate measurements. Such knowledge of the differences which exist amongst men for whatever reason is of service to the thinker about the particular differences which education aims to produce between a man and his former self.

These studies of individual differences or variability are being supplemented by studies of correlations. How far does superior vividness and fidelity in imagery from one sense go with inferiority in other sorts of imagery? To what extent is motor ability a symptom of intellectual ability? Does the quick learner soon forget? What are the mental types that result from the individual variations in mental functions and their inter-correlations? Psychology has already determined with more or less surety the answers to a number of such questions instructive in their bearing upon both scientific insight into human nature and practical arrangements for controlling it.

The extent to which the intellectual and moral differences found inhuman beings are consequences of their original nature and determined by the ancestry from which they spring, is a matter of fundamental importance for education. So also is the manner in which ancestral influence operates. Whether such qualities as leadership, the artistic temperament, originality, persistence, mathematical ability, or motor skill are represented in the germs each by one or a few unit characters so that they “Mendelize” in inheritance, or whether they are represented each by the coöperation of so many unit characters that the laws of their inheritance are those of “blending” is a question whose answer will decide in great measure the means to be employed for racial improvement. Obviously both the amount and [p. 10] the mode of operation of ancestral influence upon intellect and character are questions which psychology should and does investigate.

The results and methods of action of the many forces which operate in childhood and throughout life to change a man’s original nature are subjects for study equally appropriate to the work of a psychologist, a sociologist or a student of education, but the last two will naturally avail themselves of all that the first achieves. Although as yet the studies of such problems are crude, speculative and often misguided, we may hope that the influence of climate, food, city life, the specialization of industry, the various forms of the family and of the state, the different “studies” of the schools, and the like will come to be studied by as careful psychologists and with as much care as is now the case with color-vision or the perception of distance.

The foundation upon which education builds is the equipment of instincts and capacity given by nature apart from training. Just as knowledge of the peculiar inheritance characteristic of any individual is necessary to efficient treatment of him, so knowledge of the unlearned tendencies of man as a species is necessary to efficient planning for education in general. Partly in conscious response to this demand and partly as a result of growing interest in comparative and genetic psychology, there have been in the last two decades many studies by psychologists of both the general laws of instinct and their particular natures, dates of appearance and disappearance, and conditions of modifiability. The instincts of attitude– of interest and aversion — are of course to be included here, as well as the tendencies to more obviously effective responses.

It is unfortunately true that the unlearned tendencies to respond of ants and chickens have been studied with more care than those of men, and also that the extreme complexity and intimate mixture with habits in the case of human instincts prevent studies of them, even when made with great care, from giving entirely unambiguous and elegant results. But the educational theorist or practitioner who should conclude that his casual observations of children in homes and schools needs no reinforcement from the researches of psychologists would be making the same sort of, thought [sic] not so great, an error as the pathologist or physician who should neglect the scientific studies of bacteria and protozoa. Also the psychologist who condemns these [p. 11] studies in toto because they lack the precision and surety of his own studies of sensations and perceptual judgments is equally narrow, though from a better motive.

The modifications of instincts and capacities into habits and powers and the development of the latter are the subjects of researches in dynamic psychology which are replacing the vague verbal and trite maxims of what used to be called “applied psychology” by definite insights into reality far in advance of those which common-sense sagacity alone can make. We are finding out when and why “practice makes perfect” and when and why it does not; wherein the reinforcement of a connection between situation and response by resulting satisfaction is better than the inhibition of alternative connections by discomfort and wherein it is not; what the law of diminishing returns from equal amounts of practice is, what it implies, and how it is itself limited; how far the feelings of achievement, of failure and of fatigue are symptomatic of progress, retardation and unfitness for work. Such a list of topics could be much extended even now and is being increased rapidly as more psychologists and more gifted psychologists come to share in the study of the learning process.

Only twenty years ago a student could do little more than add to his own common-sense deductions from the common facts of life the ordered series of similar deductions by the sagacious Bain. Bain utilized all the psychology of his day as well as the common fund of school-room experience, but today his book is hopelessly outgrown. Although it was the source of the minor books on the topic during the eighties and nineties, no one would now think of presenting the facts of the science of education by a revised edition of Bain.

Other lines of psychological work deserve more than mention. Incidental contributions from studies of sensory and perceptual processes, imagery and memory, attention and distraction, facilitation, inhibition and fatigue, imitation and suggestion, the rate and accuracy of movement and other topics– even from studies made with little or no concern about the practical control of human nature — sum up to a body of facts which do extend and economize that control. The special psychology of babies, children and adolescents is obviously important to education. False infant psychology or false child psychology is harmful, not because it is infant psychology, but because it is false.

[p. 12] I give only mention to these so as to save space in which to call attention to another relation between psychology and education which is not sufficiently known. The science of education can and will itself contribute abundantly to psychology. Not only do the laws derived by psychology from simple, specially arranged experiments help us to interpret and control mental action under the conditions of school-room life. School-room life itself is a vast laboratory in which are made thousands of experiments of the utmost interest to “pure” psychology. Not only does psychology help us to understand the mistakes made by children in arithmetic. These mistakes afford most desirable material for studies of the action of the laws of association, analysis and selective thinking. Experts in education studying the responses to school situations for the sake of practical control will advance knowledge not only of the mind as a learner under school conditions but also of the mind for every point of view.

Indeed I venture to predict that this journal will before many years contain a notable proportion of articles reporting answers to psychological questions got from the facts of educational experience, in addition to its list of papers reporting answers to educational questions got from the experiments of the laboratory.

All that is here written may seem very obvious and needless, and meet the tragic fate of being agreed with by every one who reads it. I hope that it is obvious and needless, and that the relation between psychology and education is not, in the mind of any competent thinker, in any way an exception to the general case that action in the world should be guided by the truth about the world; and that any truth about it will directly or indirectly, soon or late, benefit action.